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"Every wolf pack has a social structure and every member has a certain rank in the hierarchy. Below the alpha male is a beta male who is dominant over all other males. The alpha female is dominant over all other females and most males.

This highly organized structure is maintained though an organized, predictable set of behaviors. The dominant wolf will approach a subordinate with tail up, ears forward and mouth open. The lower-ranking wolf will lower its tail or tuck it between its legs, lay back its ears and may even lie down, exposing its stomach to the more dominant wolf. A dominant wolf and a subordinate will always show their rank whenever they meet.

An "outcast" is the lowest rankingwolf in a pack. Remaining on the periphery of the pack, it is forced to survive ont the scraps left by the rest of the pack."

Copyright Gregory M. Nelson


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